#healing Tonle Sap Lake K – Chong Kneas the floating village 08

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Tonle Sap Lake K – Chong Kneas the floating village 08
natural supplement
Image by Daniel Mennerich
Tonlé Sap (literally large river (tonle); fresh, not salty (sap), commonly translated to "Great Lake") refers to a seasonally inundated freshwater lake, the Tonlé Sap Lake and an attached river, the 120 km (75 mi) long Tonlé Sap River, that connects the lake to the Mekong.

They form the central part of a complex hydrological system, situated in the 12,876 km2 (4,971 sq mi) Cambodian floodplain covered with a mosaic of natural and agricultural habitats that the Mekong replenishes with water and sediments annually. The central plain formation is the result of millions of years of Mekong alluvial deposition and discharge. From a geological perspective, the Tonlé Sap Lake and Tonlé Sap River are a current freeze-frame representation of the slowly, but ever shifting Lower Mekong Basin. Annual fluctuation of the Mekong’s water volume, supplemented by the Asian Monsoon regime causes the unique flow reversal of the Tonle Sap River.

The Tonlé Sap Lake occupies a geological depression (the lowest lying area) of the vast alluvial and lacustrine floodplain in the Lower Mekong Basin, which had been induced by the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate. The lake’s size, length and water volume varies considerably over the course of a year from an area of around 2,500 km2 (965 sq mi), a volume of 1 km3 (0 cu mi) and a length of 160 km (99 mi) at the end of the dry season in late April to an area of up to 16,000 km2 (6,178 sq mi), a volume of 80 km3 (19 cu mi) and a length of 250 km (160 mi) as the Mekong maximum and the peak of the South-West monsoon’s precipitation culminate in September and early October.

As one of the world’s most varied and productive ecosystems the region has always been of central importance for Cambodia’s food provision. It proved capable to maintain the Angkorean civilization, the largest pre-industrial settlement complex in world history. Either directly or indirectly it affects the livelihood of large numbers of a predominantly rural population to this day. With regards to a growing and migrating population, ineffective administration and widespread indifference towards environmental issues the lake and its surrounding ecosystem is coming under increasing pressure from over-exploitation and habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss. All Mekong riparian states have either announced or already implemented plans to increasingly exploit the river’s hydroelectric potential. A succession of international facilities that dam the river’s mainstream is likely to be the gravest danger yet for the entire Tonle Sap eco-region.

The largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, that contains an exceptional large variety of interconnected eco-regions with a high degree of biodiversity is a biodiversity hotspot and was designated as a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 1997.

Ruins in Side, Manavgat, Antalya
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Image by Ozgurmulazimoglu
Side (IPA: /ˈsiːdǝ/) is one of the best-known classical sites in Turkey, and was an ancient harbour whose name meant pomegranate. Side is a resort town on the southern coast of Turkey, near the villages of Manavgat and Selimiye, 75 km from Antalya) in the province of Antalya. It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River.
Settlers from Cyme (Cumæans) in Aeolis, an ancient region of northwestern Asia Minor, founded the city in the seventh century BC. Possessing a good harbor for small-craft boats, Side’s natural geography made it the most important place in Pamphylia – the region in the south of Asia Minor between Lycia and Cilicia, from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. This location made Side one of the most important trade centers in its time. Today, as in yesteryear, the ancient city of Side is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across.
Strabo and Arrianos both record that Side was settled from Cyme (Aeolis), city in Aeolia, a region of western Anatolia. Most probably, this colonization occurred in the seventh century B.C.. According to Arrianos, when settlers from Kyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the third and second centuries B.C., remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonization. Another object found in Side excavations, a basalt column base from the seventh century B.C. and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides other evidence of the site’s early history. The word "side" is Anatolian in origin and means pomegranate.

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydia and Persian Empire sovereignty. Nevertheless, the fact that Side minted its own coins during the 547 BC while under Persian dominion, shows that it still possessed a great measure of independence.
Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture of the Greek Civilization, which flourished from the fourth century to the first century BC. After Alexander’s death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander’s generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the second century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, in the following years of the second century BC, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural center.

In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great’s fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general, Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlordship of the Seleucid Empire. The embarrassing Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus the Great to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia semi-free. This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city Attalia (the present Antalya), even though Side already had an important harbour. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted their own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).

In the first century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a slave-trade center.
The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of the Roman Empire. Side’s second peak period started around 2C BC when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.[2] Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign by the king Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial center in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the third century AD. Side established itself as a slave-trading center in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy. Wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. The significance of this period for Side is evident in its ruins today. Most of the present-day ruins found in Side date from this period of prosperity.
Side began a steady decline from the fourth century on. Even defensive walls could not stop successive invasions of highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the fifth and sixth centuries, Side experienced a revival, and became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia. Arab fleets, nevertheless, raided and burned Side during the seventh century, contributing to its decline. The combination of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids, left the site completely abandoned by the 10th century. [2] Its citizens had emigrated to nearby Antalya.

In the twelfth century, Side temporarily established itself once more as a large city. An inscription found on the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine times. However, Side was abandoned again after being sacked. Its population moved to Antalya, and Side became known as Eski Adalia or Old Antalya and was buried.
One of the maps (portolani) Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.
The great ruins are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory where a wall and a moat separate it from the mainland. During medieval times, the wall and moat were repaired and the promontory houses a wealth of structures.

There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest of Pamphylia, built much like a Roman amphitheater that relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out as in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. The theater is less well preserved than the Aspendos theater, but it is almost as large, seating 15,000 – 20,000 people. With time and the shifting of the earth, the scena wall has collapsed over the stage and the proscenium is in a cataract of loose blocks. It was converted into an open-air sanctury with two chapels during Byzantine times (5-6th c.)

The well preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of the ancient city, although this gate from the second century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street although the marble columns once there do not exist anymore. All that remains is a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the a public bath, restored as a museum displaying Roman period statues and sarcophagi. Next is the square agora with in the middle the remains of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd c. BC), a periptery with twelve columns. In later times it was used as a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The current remains of the theatre, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has been restored[2]

The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. Side’s nymphaeum – a grotto with a natural water supply dedicated to the nymphs – was an artificial grotto or fountain building of elaborate design.

Turkish archaeologists have been excavating Side since 1947 and intermittently continue to do so.
In 1895 Greek Muslim refugees from Crete moved to the ruined town and called it Selimiye. Today, Side has become a popular vacation destination and experiences a new revival.

It was a favorite spot for watching the solar eclipse of March 29, 2006.

Having been the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia, it is still a titular see of the Roman Catholic church.

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