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That Was the Year That Was – 1964
Image by brizzle born and bred
1964 was a year of considerable change in Britain, with the abolition of hanging and a new economic confidence.
Culturally, Britannia was ruling the waves with The Beatles, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones topping the charts.
Ambitious plans were agreed with the French government for a Channel Tunnel to be built by the end of the decade
It was a time of great change as Britain had finally shed its post-war austerity and looked forward with a new confidence and prosperity.
The year was one of major upheaval in British history. National Service had been abolished in 1960 but the final troops involved on their compulsory military tour of duty were not sent home until the end of December 1963.
Unlike their fathers and grandfathers, teenagers in 1964 were not facing the prospect of a European war and increasing living standards allowed them a disposable income.
The Labour leader, Harold Wilson, entered the 1964 campaign determined to end "13 wasted years" under the Tories.
The populist Wilson seemed to reflect the public mood for change. The Conservative leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, was widely perceived as a distant, awkward aristocrat. Nevertheless, Wilson won only a tiny majority; another election seemed imminent.
By the time of the 1964 general election, the Conservative Party had been in power for 13 years. Since Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s election victory in 1959, Conservative fortunes had plummeted.
The buoyant economy that led to Macmillan’s election was faltering by 1961. The following year, in a bid to restore his popularity, Macmillan sacked seven members of his cabinet in a move dubbed the "Night of the Long Knives". It was a ploy that failed. The Government ran into further problems when Britain’s application to join the Common Market was rejected by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.
Scandal added to the Government’s woes when John Profumo, the Minister for War, was forced to resign after he admitted lying to Parliament over his involvement with the call girl, Christine Keeler. The Government looked tired, embattled and increasingly out of step with the public mood.
In 1964, an ailing socialist broadsheet, ‘The Daily Herald’, was re-launched as ‘The Sun’ and in 1968 the owners (Reed International) put it up for sale. Of the two bidders (the other being Labour MP, Robert Maxwell), Murdoch won with a bid for £800,000. In 1967 he had already purchased the ‘News of the World’.
The new ‘Sun’ re-launched in 1969 and became a spicier version of ‘The Mirror’. The very first issue carried a photo of the Rolling Stones with a naked female. Sex was to be the main ingredient of the paper. Soft porn came to fill almost every page together with lurid sex stories. Within 100 days, circulation had jumped from 850,000 to 1.5 million. By 1987 the paper was making £1 million a week These profits were pumped into BSkyB and Fox, subesquently turning them into the two biggest pillars of the Murdoch empire today.
What’s on TV?
The Magic Roundabout, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, My Fair Lady and The Pink Panther, Mary Poppins was there any other year in the fabulous 1960’s which produced so many entertainment trendsetters as 1964?
On TV for the first time, in the domestic comedy Bewitched, the nation was delighted to meet long-suffering Darrin and his
wife Samantha, the most attractive witch to ever ride a broomstick.
The Crossroads motel, which featured Brummie accents for the first time on TV, The Magic Roundabout opened its doors and Dougal, Zebedee and Florence delighted children and adults alike by taking us for a ride on The Magic Roundabout, one of the most successful children’s shows ever seen on TV.
In January, Steptoe and Son, an unlikely comedy written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson about a family rag and bone business, was declared Britain’s most popular TV show. With battling father and son wonderfully portrayed by Wilfred Bramble and Harry H.Corbett the show went on to become something of an institution. It was claimed that 26 million viewers in 9,653,000 homes had tuned in to the latest series.
Labour leader Harold Wilson secretly lobbied the BBC to change the time of popular comedy Steptoe and Son on the night of the 1964 election because he feared working class voters would stay at home and watch the show instead of supporting his candidates.
According to new archive footage held by the BBC, Mr Wilson went to the home of BBC Director General Sir Hugh Greene and told him the show could cost him 20 seats.
Mr Wilson was leader of the opposition and was seeking to oust the Conservative Prime Minister Alec Douglas Home. The Labour leader thought the planned repeat of the sit-com starring Harry H Corbett and Wilfrid Brambell would hit them badly.
Much excitement was caused when a new TV channel appeared in 1964 and BBC 2 was born. Play School, the first programme to be screened, took us through the window to meet Little Ted and Big Ted, plus kids all-time favourite presenter Johnny Ball, who grew up in Kingswood, Bristol.
A lighter, much more transportable TV set, with an 11-inch screen and weighing only 16 lbs, appeared in the shops in August. These sets received BOTH ITV and BBC services on special “rabbits ears” aerials. If you couldn’t afford a telly, and many couldn’t 60 years ago, you could hire one for six shillings and sixpence a week.
UK TV Adverts from 1964 Including: Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, Dual Floor Polish, Goodyear G8 Tyres, Surf Washing Powder, BSM School Of Motoring, St Bruno Pipe Tobacco, Brolac Paint, Fairy Washing Up Liquid, Body Mist Deodorant and S & H Pink Stamps.
Sport on TV
Sports fans weren’t forgotten. On the 22 August 22, they were treated to the voice of Kenneth Wolstenholme and the very first Match of the Day. A paltry 50,000 viewers tuned in to watch Liverpool beat Arsenal 3-2. But very often all the fans got were recorded highlights rather than live action. It didn’t transfer from minority channel BBC 2 to the mainstream BBC 1 until after the World Cup triumph of 1966.
1964 was, of course the year of the Tokyo Olympics. We won four gold medals. Mary Rand from Wells (who was also named BBC sports personality of the year) won the long jump, Anne Parker and Lynn Davies the 800 metres and Ken Mathews the 20km race walk.
1964 was a golden year for pop music. The Rolling Stones, The Dave Clark Five, Liverpool’s The Swinging Blue Jeans, Manchester’s The Hollies and the late Dusty Springfield launched a BBC ﬂagship Top of the Pops. Coming from its first home, a converted Manchester church.
The Beatles had by 1964 already toured the country to unbelievably hysterical scenes and were at their peak, scoring number one hits with Can’t buy me Love, A Hard Day’s Night and I Feel Fine. In February Beatle-mania gripped the US as the Fab Four took the place by storm, capturing the ﬁrst five places in the singles charts as well as the top two positions in the album listings. In July, 10,000 screaming teenage fans thronged London’s West End as Princess Margaret arrived for the Premiere of their first film A Hard Day’s Night.
Even before Pan Am flight 101 touched down at JFK Airport in New York it was obvious that The Beatles had already conquered the American market. In January ‘I want to hold your hand’ sold half a million records in less than a fortnight, and is number one in the USA at the start of February.
A crowd of 3,000 screaming fans waits for the arrival of the Fab Four; the LP ‘Meet the Beatles’ hits number one at the end of January and stays there for almost three months; before they land music stations throughout the country are playing Beatles songs more than anybody else’s, and after they land some stations play almost nothing else for days.
Once installed in their hotel in New York, The Plaza, the band is to all intents and purposes under siege by fans eager to see them, or seemingly to rip them limb from limb given the chance.
The highlight of the brief trip to the USA comes on February 9 , with their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show. There are 728 seats available for the show; 50,000 apply for them. The Beatles play five songs, opening with ‘All my Loving’ and closing with ‘I Want to Hold your Hand’, with much screaming to accompany every note.
According to TV ratings company Nielsen their appearance on the show was seen by 73 million viewers. Beatlemania had arrived with a bang.
More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city.
The Beatles gain the Christmas number one for the second year running with I Feel Fine, which has topped the singles charts for the third week running. The Beatles have now had six number ones in the United Kingdom alone.
The Rolling Stones, founded by Cheltenham blues fanatic Brian Jones and fronted by the energetic, rubber lips, Mick Jagger, had their first top 10 hit with Not Fade Away.
Talented songwriters, the Davies brothers, came up with the
Kinks’ first hit, You really Got Me, and a sensational young Scots lass with a husky voice called Lulu had a smash with that Isley Brothers favourite Shout.
For these young people, recently dubbed teenagers, Bob Dylan described the situation pretty accurately when he sang ‘The Times They Are A-Changin’, released in January 1964.
For those wanting to hear more pop music than was available via the BBC (which wasn’t much until Radio One came along)
Radio Caroline, the first pirate ship, began broadcasting from
international waters in March. It was legal, just, but the government didn’t like it. In May, the vessel was joined by Radio Atlanta.
The United Kingdom held a national selection to choose the song that would go to the Eurovision Song Contest 1964. It was held on 7 February 1964 and presented by David Jacobs.
"I Love the Little Things" by Matt Monro won the national and went on to come 2nd in the contest.
Film-goers that memorable year were not disappointed. Sean Connery’s James Bond battled it out with Goldfinger, while Ian Fleming, James Bond’s creator, died of a heart attack in August aged just 56. The big romance of the year was the March marriage of glamorous movie stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.
In October the Labour Party, with canny pipe- smoking Yorkshireman Harold Wilson at the helm of a national economic plan, regained power after 13 years of Tory rule.
1964: ‘Great Train Robbers’ get 300 years
Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".
Sentences totalling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6m in used bank notes after holding up the night mail train travelling from Glasgow to London last August.
The judge at Buckinghamshire Assizes in Aylesbury, Mr Justice Edmund Davies, said it would be "positively evil" if he showed leniency.
The robbery was the biggest-ever carried out in Britain.
Violent disturbances between Mods and Rockers at Clacton beach
Gang fights have gone on in Britain for centuries; but in the mid-1960s a tribal element arrived on the scene in the form of Mods and Rockers.
Mods were cool: they wore Italian-style suits beneath badge-bedecked parkas; they had carefully coiffed hair; rode Lambretta and Vespa scooters; and listened to new bands like The Who and The Small Faces and ska greats like Prince Buster. Rockers were grungier: they wore leathers as befitted ton-up bikers; had long and often greasy hair; and were fans of Elvis, Buddy Holly and Gene Vincent.
The two tribes went to war first – at least in a large scale fight – in Clacton over Easter 1964. But the Whitsun weekend of May 18 and 19 saw things escalate hugely. There were battles in Broadstairs , Bournemouth , Hastings , Margate , Clacton again, and most notably in Brighton . Thousands from each side had gathered in theory for a seaside break that turned into turf battles: deckchairs were a weapon of convenience; flick-knives favoured by many Mods; bike-chains by Rockers.
As ever the poor police stood between the factions and had bottles thrown at them.
Middle Britain panicked into thinking civilisation was coming to an end. It didn’t; but hundreds of teenagers were fined, and some had short prison sentences for their part in the violence.
Moors murders: A missing persons investigation is launched in Fallowfield, Manchester, as police search for twelve-year-old Keith Bennett, who went missing on the previous evening.
Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, are hanged for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April, the last executions to take place in the British Isles.
On the local front, Avonmouth’s 1,500 dockers walked out on strike in January. The same month, the Lord Mayor of Bristol opened the first of five tower blocks to be built at Hartcliffe and in March Mr Marples announced the route of the M5 motorway through Gloucestershire and Somerset. In July, as the school holidays started, it was reported that there were 100 miles of trafﬁc jams on the A38, then still the main route from the Midlands to the South-West.
1964 The Cost of Living
TV Rental for a 17 inch TV from Derwent’s of Park St. was six shillings and six pence (6s 6d) a week and for a giant 19 inch, nine shillings and seven pence. (9s 7d) At John James shops, the best deal in town, a set cost just four shillings if you rented it over three years. New TV’s were expensive in 1964. John James were offering a top 19 inch model with 625 lines for 68 guineas. Average wages at the time were anything from £10 to £15 a week. Having said that you could buy an ordinary model for a modest 29 Guineas. . ‘
Package holidays had started to boom in 1964. Everybody was mad about them because it gave you the chance to ﬂy for the first time and experience a ‘foreign’ holiday in the sun. "
Top Bristol travel agents Hourmont were offering 15 days away in Majorca for £41 -10s or the same time in Benidorn on the Costa Blanca for £43.00. At the cheaper end of the market LEP Travel could offer the same holiday for £29-18-0. Four days in Paris – ﬂying from Lulsgate – would only set you back £19.00.
In 1964 you could buy a terraced Victorian house in Totterdown for £1 ,300 or an established house in leafy Westbury Park for about £5,000. Somewhere cosy in Eastville was about £2,000 and an ordinary three-bedroom semi about £3,000. But there were bargains to be had if you had money in the bank and a little foresight. An eight-room house in Clifton-wood, in need of renovation but overlooking the docks, was advertised for £800 — cash in hand only.
High street prices
A trip to a good hairdressers has always been expensive. In 1964 a perm could cost you 42 shillings, just over £2.00, while that fur trimmed coat from C&As would set you back seven guineas. ‘
Furnishing your house? You could bring home a modern Scandinavian three-piece suite forjust 32 guineas. lf, however, you were happy with an ordinary fireside chair, you’d get one from a department store for £8-10s-0d.
A state-of-the-art automatic washing machine, not a twin tub, cost a whopping £50.00.
A new baby? Horwoods in Old Market were selling top line prams for £17-19-6.
On the Roads in 1964 there were just a few sections of Motorway open but a big construction of the motorway system was underway seeing more sections opening each year.
Those actually open in 1964 were as follows:
M1 Junctions 5 to 18, M2 Junctions 2 to 5, M4 The Chiswick flyover (Junction 1) and Junctions 5 to 9, M5 Junctions 4 to 8, M6 Junctions 13 to 35, M20 Junctions 5 to 8 and the M45, M63 and M10 were complete.
Latest cars on the road in 1964 included the Vauxhall Viva and the Ford Anglia the Cortina also being a very popular car of the time.
The Forth Road Bridge was opened and in 1965 the Severn Bridge was opened.
If you were lucky enough to fly in 1964 you would of probably flown by BOAC ( British Overseas Airways Corporation ) or BEA (British European Airways ) and the VC 10 was the latest aeroplane.
Ford Anglias were all the rage in 1964. A second hand one cost £490.00. A new Mini would set you back about £448 and a popular Triumph Herald £515.
Announcement that American car manufacturer Chrysler is taking a substantial share in the British Rootes Group combine, which includes the Hillman, Singer and Sunbeam marques.
Daihatsu becomes the first Japanese car-maker to import passenger cars to the United Kingdom, launching its Compagno on the British market.
Beer & Fags
Beer was between 1/6 and 2/0 a pint; a double whisky or other spirit was rather more. Indeed, in those days spirit drinkers usually kept out of rounds and bought their own.
Smoking was still extremely popular in 1964, nearly 70% of men and around 40% of women smoked. The most popular brand in the UK was "Embassy Filter".
One old shilling (1/0) was worth 5 new pence.
Government figures show that the average weekly wage is £16. £10 banknotes are issued for the first time since the Second World War.
Teen girls’ magazine Jackie first published.
The final edition of the left-wing Daily Herald newspaper is published. The Sun newspaper goes into circulation, replacing the Daily Herald.
Fred Trueman – ‘Fiery Fred’ – was one of England’s greatest cricketers, becoming the first English bowler to take 300 test wickets when he dismissed Australian batsman Neil Hawke in the Oval test of 1964, Colin Cowdray taking the catch at slip.
Typically of his career he was coming back after having been dropped for the previous match (at Old Trafford ). This was doubtless partly as he was past his very best – though a mediocre Trueman was better than many subsequent England quicks at the top of their game – partly as he rarely found favour with the gentleman amateurs who still had a major say in the sport both at Yorkshire and in the England set-up.
Had he perish the thought been subservient he would probably have played another dozen tests or so.
There was little that was conventional about Fred Trueman , except perhaps his classically smooth bowling action.
Through his career he regularly managed to get on the wrong side of many blazer-bedecked committee types who ran cricket “In my day” as he would have said with his favourite post-career phrase. As a summariser on Test Match Special he continued to annoy some of the playing establishment, never one to water down deserved criticism, especially of lack of effort, thought or heart – “I don’t know what’s going off” his exasperated response to such moments.
Trueman was indefatigable, and achieved his 300 wickets by bending his back – not like some by bending his arm.
Liverpool win the Football League First Division for the sixth time in their history.
West Ham United win the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating Preston North End 3-2 at Wembley Stadium.
5 April 1964 – Tottenham captain Danny Blanchflower, 38, announced his retirement from playing.
8 April 1964 – Blackburn Rovers are announced as England’s participant in the 1964 edition of the International Soccer League.
11 April 1964 – Scotland beat England 1–0 in the British Home Championship to leave the two level on four points in the final table. Northern Ireland subsequently defeated Wales to finish level on points with the other two, thus ensuring that the title was shared between three nations.
12 April 1964 – The Sunday People publishes allegations that lead to a betting scandal. It reported that Mansfield Town player Jimmy Gauld had, over several years, systematically engaged in match fixing, and that many other players were involved.
18 April 1964 – Liverpool beat Arsenal 5–0 at Anfield to secure the title. In their penultimate game of the season, Ipswich Town lose 3–1 to Blackburn Rovers, confirming their relegation two years after winning the League championship.
22 April 1964 – Leicester City win the League Cup – their first major trophy – with a 4–3 aggregate victory over Stoke City.
25 April 1964 – On the final day of the Second Division season, Leeds United win 2–0 at Charlton Athletic and Sunderland fail to beat Grimsby Town, meaning Leeds were crowned champions.
2 May 1964 – West Ham United beat Preston North End 3–2 at Wembley to win the FA Cup for the first time. Trailing 2–1 going into the final minutes of the match, West Ham scored two goals in as many minutes to the deny Preston.
All schools in Aberdeen are closed following 136 cases of typhoid being reported.
Terence Conran opens the first Habitat store on London’s Fulham Road.
"Pirate" radio station Radio Sutch begins broadcasting from Shivering Sands Army Fort in the Thames Estuary.
Official opening of the UK’s first undercover shopping centre, at the Bull Ring, Birmingham.
The Post Office Tower in London is completed, although it does not begin operation until October 1965.
Some 90% of British households now own a television, compared to around 25% in 1953 and 65% in 1959.
The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation’s 12-bit PDP-8, is marketed.
Toy of the year: Mr Potato Head
1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorizes war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities.
Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century.
Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.
1964 World Headlines
13 Jan – Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead
More than 100 people have been killed following Hindu-Muslim rioting in the Indian city of Calcutta.
06 Feb – Green light for Channel Tunnel
The British and French Governments have announced their commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel.
07 Feb – Beatlemania arrives in the US
The four members of the British hit band, the Beatles, have arrived in New York at the start of their first tour of the United States.
12 Feb – Deaths follow Cyprus truce breach
Fighting between ethnic Turks and Greeks in the disputed island of Cyprus has left at least 16 people dead.
25 Feb – Cassius Clay crowned world champion
Cassius Clay, 22, has been crowned heavyweight champion of the world after beating Sonny Liston in one of the biggest upsets in boxing’s history.
29 Feb – Royal baby for leap year day
The Queen’s cousin, Princess Alexandra, has given birth to a son at her home in Surrey.
12 Mar – Hoffa faces eight years behind bars
The president of the powerful American Teamsters union has been sentenced to eight years in jail on bribery charges.
14 Mar – Jack Ruby sentenced to death
Jack Ruby has been sentenced to death after being found guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President John F Kennedy.
19 Mar – ‘Ambitious’ plans for south east
Three new cities are proposed for south east England as part of the largest regional expansion plan in Britain. The ‘new towns’ eventually created were Milton Keynes, Havant and Basingstoke.
16 Apr – ‘Great Train Robbers’ get 300 years
Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".
14 May – Nasser and Khrushchev divert the Nile
President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev have marked the first stage in the building of the Aswan High Dam.
27 May – Light goes out in India as Nehru dies
Jawaharlal Nehru, founder of modern India and its current prime minister, has died suddenly at the age of 74.
12 Jun – Nelson Mandela jailed for life
The leader of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, has been jailed for life for sabotage
17 Jun – Japan trade fair floats into London
The first purpose-built floating trade fair has docked at Tilbury in London with 22,000 samples of Japanese goods on board.
02 Jul – President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill
The Civil Rights Bill – one of the most important piece of legislation in American history – has become law.
04 Aug – Three civil rights activists found dead
The bodies of three civil rights workers missing for six weeks have been found buried in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi.
10 Aug – Guns fall silent in Cyprus
The United Nations has brokered another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing the growing crisis between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey.
04 Sep – Forth Road Bridge opened
The Queen has officially opened Europe’s longest suspension bridge linking Edinburgh to Perth across the River Forth.
15 Sep – The Sun newspaper is born
The Sun newspaper is published today for the first time.
It is replacing the Mirror Group’s Daily Herald, which has been losing readers and advertising revenue for several years.
28 Sep – Kennedy murder was ‘no conspiracy’
There was no conspiracy surrounding the death of President Kennedy but there were serious failures by those responsible for his protection, according to a government report.
12 Oct – Labour voters are ‘bonkers’ says Hogg
A senior Conservative minister has stolen the show at the Conservative news conference by branding all Labour voters "bonkers".
Quintin Hogg, Lord President of the Council and Secretary for Education and Science, made his quip after mounting a stinging attack on Labour’s policies.
15 Oct – Khrushchev ‘retires’ as head of USSR
Nikita Khrushchev has unexpectedly stepped down as leader of the Soviet Union.
25 Oct – President Kaunda takes power in Zambia
Zambia has become the ninth African state to gain independence from the British crown.
03 Nov – Election triumph for Lyndon B Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson has been elected president of the United States defeating hard-line Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona by an overwhelming majority.
23 Dec – Beeching to leave British Railways
The chairman of the British Railways Board is to part company with the organisation and return to his post at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).
31 Dec – Campbell speeds to double record
Donald Campbell has broken the world water speed record, becoming the first man to break the world land and water speed records in the same year.
100 most popular hits in the UK singles music charts in 1964
01 Jim Reeves – I Love You Because
02 Jim Reeves – I Won’t Forget You
03 Roy Orbison – It’s Over
04 Roy Orbison – Oh Pretty Woman
05 The Beatles – A Hard Day’s Night
06 Cilla Black – You’re My World
07 Cilla Black – Anyone Who Had A Heart
08 The Searchers – Needles And Pins
09 The Honeycombs – Have I The Right?
10 Manfred Mann – Do Wah Diddy Diddy
11 Herman’s Hermits – I’m Into Something Good
12 Dave Clark Five – Glad All Over
13 The Bachelors – Diane
14 The Rolling Stones – It’s All Over Now
15 The Beatles – Can’t Buy Me Love
16 Billy J Kramer & The Dakotas – Little Children
17 The Bachelors – I Believe
18 The Beatles – I Want To Hold Your Hand
19 Julie Rogers – The Wedding
20 Peter & Gordon – World Without Love
21 The Four Pennies – Juliet
22 Millie – My Boy Lollipop
23 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes – Someone, Someone
24 The Swinging Blue Jeans – Hippy Hippy Shake
25 Sandie Shaw – (There’s) Always Something There To Remind Me
26 The Kinks – You Really Got Me
27 The Searchers – Don’t Throw Your Love Away
28 The Supremes – Baby Love
29 Gerry & The Pacemakers – I’m The One
30 The Supremes – Where Did Our Love Go
31 Dave Clark Five – Bits And Pieces
32 The Bachelors – I Wouldn’t Trade You For The World
33 The Four Seasons – Rag Doll
34 The Beatles – I Feel Fine
35 The Rolling Stones – Not Fade Away
36 The Animals – House Of The Rising Sun
37 The Hollies – Just One Look
38 Matt Monro – Walk Away
39 The Merseybeats – I Think Of You
40 The Barron Knights – Call Up The Groups
41 Petula Clark – Downtown
42 Gene Pitney – I’m Gonna Be Strong
43 Gene Pitney – Twenty Four Hours From Tulsa
44 PJ Proby – Hold Me
45 Dusty Springfield – I Just Don’t Know What To Do With Myself
46 Brenda Lee – As Usual
47 The Kinks – All Day And All Of The Night
48 Dusty Springfield – I Only Want To Be With You
49 The Searchers – When You Walk In The Room
50 Cliff Richard – Constantly
51 Val Doonican – Walk Tall
52 The Rolling Stones – Little Red Rooster
53 The Beatles – She Loves You
54 Mary Wells – My Guy
55 The Nashville Teens – Tobacco Road
56 The Rockin’ Berries – He’s In Town
57 The Shadows – Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt
58 Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders – Um Um Um Um Um Um
59 The Bachelors – Ramona
60 Cliff Richard – On The Beach
61 The Swinging Blue Jeans – You’re No Good
62 Manfred Mann – Sha La La
63 Manfred Mann – 5-4-3-2-1
64 Dave Berry – The Crying Game
65 Doris Day – Move Over Darling
66 The Beach Boys – I Get Around
67 Louis Armstrong – Hello, Dolly!
68 Marianne Faithfull – As Tears Go By
69 Chuck Berry – No Particular Place To Go
70 Dionne Warwick – Walk On By
71 Applejacks – Tell Me When
72 Eden Kane – Boys Cry
73 The Fourmost – A Little Loving
74 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes – Candy Man
75 Gene Pitney – That Girl Belongs To Yesterday
76 The Hollies – Here I Go Again
77 Frank Ifield – Don’t Blame Me
78 The Ronettes – Baby I Love You
79 Lulu & The Luvvers – Shout
80 Big Dee Irwin – Swinging On A Star
81 Gerry & The Pacemakers – Don’t Let The Sun Catch You Crying
82 The Hollies – We’re Through
83 Jim Reeves – There’s A Heartache Following Me
84 Dean Martin – Everybody Loves Somebody
85 Gigliola Cinquetti – Non Ho L’Eta Per Amarti
86 Dave Clark Five – Can’t You See That She’s Mine
87 The Hollies – Stay
88 Freddie & The Dreamers – I Understand
89 Cilla Black – It’s For You
90 The Migil Five – Mocking Bird Hill
91 Cliff Richard – Twelfth Of Never
92 Dusty Springfield – Losing You
93 PJ Proby – Together
94 The Animals – I’m Crying
95 Elvis Presley – Kissin’ Cousins
96 Peter & Gordon – Nobody I Know
97 Kathy Kirby – Let Me Go Lover
98 Henry Mancini Orchestra – How Soon?
99 The Zombies – She’s Not There
100 The Mojos – Everything’s Alright
Top Twenty TV Shows in 1964 were
1. Steptoe and Son (BBC)
2. Sunday Palladium (ITV)
3. Coronation Street (ITV)
4. Dick Powell Theatre (BBC)
5. Take Your Pick (ITV)
6. Royal Variety Show (BBC)
7. No Hiding Place (ITV)
8. Armchair Theatre (ITV)
9. It’s Tarbuck (ITV)
10. Crane (ITV)
11. Stars and Garters (ITV)
12. Double Your Money (ITV)
13. Emergency Ward Ten (ITV)
14. Around the Beatles (ITV)
15. Frank Ifield Show (ITV)
16. The Avengers (ITV)
17. Christmas Comedy (ITV)
18. Miss World 1964 (ITV)
19. Max Bygraves (ITV)
20. Love Story (ITV)
That Was the Year That Was – 1965
Youth Culture – Hippies 1960s
Image by brizzle born and bred
Photograph: Bill Eppridge/Time & Life Pictures
Whatever happened to all the old hippies? The millions who rallied, marched, protested, chanted and boycotted?
Whatever happened to the Peace & Love Generation; the hippies?
Aside from the drug casualties, did they all just become accountants and soccer moms/dads?
Are there any actual studies or statistics on what became of the flower children?
The hippie movement and a culture of flower-wearing, drugs, psychedelic music, psychedelic art and social permissiveness.
The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s, swiftly spreading to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term ‘hippie’ is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York City’s Greenwich Village and San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury district.
The early hippie ideology included the countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Some created their own social groups and communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as marijuana and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness.
In January 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco popularized hippie culture, leading to the legendary Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast.
Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda Chicana and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa.
In the United Kingdom, mobile "peace convoys" of New age travellers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge.
In Australia hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass.
In Chile, "Piedra Roja Festival" was held in 1970, and was the major hippie event in that country.
Hippie fashions and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts.
Since the widespread movement in the 1960s, many aspects of hippie culture have been assimilated by mainstream society.
The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a wide audience.
The hippie legacy can be observed in contemporary culture in myriad forms — from health food, to music festivals, to contemporary sexual mores, and even to the cyberspace revolution.
The new hippie clothes style wasn’t great for retailers either. Shopping at the Army Surplus tends to undercut major department stores.
Handmade and natural were sacred words. We crafted by doing macrame, beading, all sorts of homespun things that kids today wouldn’t be caught dead doing. Never mind. It was the Sixties!.
The 1960s were an important decade – a time of great progress in terms of civil rights and the anti-war movement, the 1960s were also a time where a powerful youth movement mobilized around the tenants of peace and love and revolutionized the world. We all know this, because old hippies love to remind us about their impact. While some people feel that hippies are questionable, there is no denying the enduring legacy of hippy fashion.
The thing about hippy fashion is that it’s so polarizing. It’s one of those things you either love or you hate, and often your opinion on hippy fashion will change in your lifetime. However, there is no denying that hippy fashioned helped change the tenant of youth fashion in a way that impacts contemporary fashion. One of the underlying aspects of hippy fashion was color. Tie dyed shirts were all of the rage and to this day, hippies congregate in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco to participate in a drum circle, play hackey sack, and recite their thoughts in the poetic medium. A time of flower prints, bellbottoms, and occasional dips into leather – hippy fashion is a fascinating genre of 1960s fashion and a symbol of free love (or that’s what we’re told).
Joe Cocker – A Little Help From My Friends – Woodstock 1969 video
On January 14, 1967, the outdoor Human Be-In organized by Michael Bowen helped to popularize hippie culture across the United States, with 20,000 hippies gathering in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. On March 26, Lou Reed, Edie Sedgwick and 10,000 hippies came together in Manhattan for the Central Park Be-In on Easter Sunday.
The Monterey Pop Festival from June 16 to June 18 introduced the rock music of the counterculture to a wide audience and marked the start of the "Summer of Love".
Scott McKenzie’s rendition of John Phillips’ song, "San Francisco", became a hit in the United States and Europe. The lyrics, "If you’re going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair", inspired thousands of young people from all over the world to travel to San Francisco, sometimes wearing flowers in their hair and distributing flowers to passersby, earning them the name, "Flower Children". Bands like the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company (with Janis Joplin), and Jefferson Airplane lived in the Haight.
In June 1967, Herb Caen was approached by "a distinguished magazine" to write about why hippies were attracted to San Francisco. He declined the assignment but interviewed hippies in the Haight for his own newspaper column in the San Francisco Chronicle. Caen determined that, "Except in their music, they couldn’t care less about the approval of the straight world."
Caen himself felt that the city of San Francisco was so straight that it provided a visible contrast with the hippie culture. On July 7, Time magazine featured a cover story entitled, "The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture." The article described the guidelines of the hippie code: "Do your own thing, wherever you have to do it and whenever you want. Drop out. Leave society as you have known it. Leave it utterly. Blow the mind of every straight person you can reach. Turn them on, if not to drugs, then to beauty, love, honesty, fun."
It is estimated that around 100,000 people traveled to San Francisco in the summer of 1967. The media was right behind them, casting a spotlight on the Haight-Ashbury district and popularizing the "hippie" label. With this increased attention, hippies found support for their ideals of love and peace but were also criticized for their anti-work, pro-drug, and permissive ethos.
By the end of the summer, the Haight-Ashbury scene had deteriorated. The incessant media coverage led the Diggers to declare the "death" of the hippie with a parade.
According to the late poet Susan ‘Stormi’ Chambless, the hippies buried an effigy of a hippie in the Panhandle to demonstrate the end of his/her reign. Haight-Ashbury could not accommodate the influx of crowds (mostly naive youngsters) with no place to live. Many took to living on the street, panhandling and drug-dealing. There were problems with malnourishment, disease, and drug addiction.
Crime and violence skyrocketed. By the end of 1967, many of the hippies and musicians who initiated the Summer of Love had moved on. Misgivings about the hippie culture, particularly with regard to drug abuse and lenient morality, fueled the moral panics of the late 1960s.
In August 1969, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair took place in Bethel, New York, which for many, exemplified the best of hippie counterculture. Over 500,000 people arrived to hear some of the most notable musicians and bands of the era, among them Richie Havens, Joan Baez, Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, Carlos Santana, The Who, Jefferson Airplane, and Jimi Hendrix. Wavy Gravy’s Hog Farm provided security and attended to practical needs, and the hippie ideals of love and human fellowship seemed to have gained real-world expression.
In December 1969, a similar event took place in Altamont, California, about 30 miles (45 km) east of San Francisco. Initially billed as "Woodstock West", its official name was The Altamont Free Concert. About 300,000 people gathered to hear The Rolling Stones; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; Jefferson Airplane and other bands. The Hells Angels provided security that proved far less benevolent than the security provided at the Woodstock event: 18-year-old Meredith Hunter was stabbed and killed during The Rolling Stones’ performance.
See My Other Youth Culture Links Below
Hippies on Video
Oh the joys of the open road!
Image by brizzle born and bred
Timeline of motoring history 1940 – 2008
Car production in Britain is put on hold as most factories go over to munitions production.
The German Luftwaffe destroys the centre of Coventry.
Oldsmobile and Cadillac offer the first fully automatic transmission.
Enzo Ferrari leaves Alfa Romeo to establish Auto-Avio Costruzioni Ferrari.
In Japan, Toyo Kogyo produces its first passenger car.
Lord Austin dies aged 74
Louis Chevrolet dies aged 63. He is buried at Indianapolis, scene of his greatest racing victories.
Packard are the first car manufacturer to offer air conditioning.
Chrysler introduces the Fluid Drive transmission, a manual transmission with a fluid coupling instead of a clutch.
American passenger car production falls to just 139 vehicles as war production requirements take over.
Volvo focus on occupant safety with the introduction of a safety cage.
Louis Renault is arrested and imprisoned for collaborating with the Germans. He dies at Fresnes prison in ‘suspicious circumstances’.
Enzo Ferrari’s Maranello workshops are bombed and destroyed.
2nd World War in Europe ends with Germany’s unconditional surrender to the allies on May 7th.
In receivership since 1939, Triumph is acquired by Standard.
Petrol rationing in Britain continues.
Henry Ford resigns as president of The Ford Motor Company, handing over to his grandson, Henry Ford 11.
French President Charles de Gaulle nationalizes Renault and the company’s name is changed to Regié Nationale des Usines Renault.
The newly elected Socialist government ‘encourages’ manufacturers to export half their output. To counteract the consequential development of an illicit black-market car buyers are required to sign a covenant preventing the sale of new cars for one year.
Newly designed post-war models are launched by British car makers Triumph, Armstrong-Siddeley, Jowett and Bentley as the British Motor Industry celebrates its fiftieth birthday.
Petrol ration for British motorists is increased by 50 per cent.
Ford of Britain produce their millionth car, an 8hp Anglia.
Michelin patent the Radial-ply tyre.
In light of negative wartime connotations William Lyons changes the name of SS Cars Ltd. to Jaguar Cars Ltd and begins to focus on export markets.
Enzo Ferrari rebuilds his bombed workshops and begins work on the development and production of the Ferrari 125 Sport. The first Ferrari hits the road!
Packard offers power seats and windows across their range.
Ettore Bugatti dies in Paris aged 66.
The American car industry celebrates its Golden Jubilee.
Henry Ford dies at the age of 84.
BMW engine and car designs are ‘acquired’ by Bristol and Frazer-Nash as ‘war reparations’.
David Brown, already successful in the British engineering industry, sees an advertisement in The Times offering ‘A high-class motor business, established 25 years’ and pays £20.000 to buy Aston Martin. He has already purchased Lagonda, having owned a Lagonda Rapide himself in the past.
A new name, Standard-Vanguard, is introduced to the British public
Instead of taxing cars based on the 1906 RAC horsepower formula a flat- rate system is introduced.
Enzo Ferrari’s 125 Sport wins its first race. The first of many Ferrari victories.
The first motor show since the end of the war takes place at Earls Court.
Morris introduce the Minor family car, designed by Alec Issigonis.
Jaguar Cars Ltd. announces the XK120 sports car featuring low, streamlined body, an outstanding twin overhead cam 6 cylinder engine and a top speed of 120mph. Alongside it the elegant MK 5 saloon (sedan) replaces the pre-war model known by enthusiasts, though not the company, as the MK 4.
Citoen introduce the 2CV, reputedly designed to accommodate gentlemen still wearing their hats and to drive across a ploughed field without breaking a cargo of eggs!
The American motor industry builds its 100,000,000th car.
Ferdinand Porsche launches the Porsche marque by introducing the 356/2 as a no-frills sports car re-working of his war-time Volkswagen project.
Developed along the well proven lines of the Willys Jeep, Rover introduce the 4 wheel drive Land Rover.
Buick offer the Dynaflow fully automatic gearbox. This is essentially the automatic gearbox as we know it today,
Michelin ‘X’ radial-ply tyres go on sale for the first time.
British government ends petrol rationing but doubles fuel tax.
The new car covenant, introduced to prevent a black market in new cars is extended from one to two years ownership.
The UK’s former double purchase tax on luxury cars is halved.
Ford wins back its second place in the US sales league from Chrysler.
Automatic transmission becomes available on lower priced Chevrolet models.
Goodyear offers self-repairing tyres (tires).
60% of American families now own a car.
6,657,000 cars are sold in the USA.
Rover demonstrates the JET 1 the world’s first gas turbine powered car.
Ford engineer Earle S MacPherson designs the MacPherson Strut, a combination of spring, shock absorber and stub-axle which simplifies design and production and reduces costs.
Ford UK introduces Consul and Zephyr models.
In the USA, automatic gearboxes become more readily available – Chevrolet offer the Powerglide, Ford the Fordomatic and Merc-O-Matic.
Nash feature seatbelts in the Rambler. The promoted benefits are that they ‘overcome the problems caused when sleeping passengers fall out of their seats’!
Porsche enters a 356 SL in the Le Mans 24-Hours and wins the 1100cc class·
Ferdinand Porsche dies aged 75.
Lotus Engineering Co founded by aeronautical engineer and competitive sports car driver Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman.
100mph performance becomes available at realistic prices as Triumph announces the TR and the Healey introduces their 100/4 sports cars.
Chrysler offer power steering and the M-6 Torque-Converter Automatic. They also spark a horsepower race with the 180 horsepower, 331 cubic-inch Firepower Hemi V-8 engine.
Kaiser introduces new safety features, a pop-out windshield and a padded dashboard top.
Jaguar introduces the prototype C-Type race-car, aimed at winning Le Mans.
In the USA, sales of cars with automatic transmissions exceed 2 million.
Crosley ceases production.
Rival manufacturers Nuffield organisation (Morris) and Austin comes to an end with their amalgamation into the British Motor Corporation (BMC) with Lord Nuffield in the driving seat.
Mercedes shows the spectacular 300SL ‘gull wing’ sports coupe.
Packard offer power brakes.
The newly developed disk braking system, now available from Dunlop, is fitted to Jaguar’s C Types, enabling them to achieve 1st, 2nd and 4th places at Le Mans.
As wartime austerity begins to fade in the United Kingdom, the availability of higher octane fuels allows higher compression ratios and improvements in engine performance.
Singer announces the SMX Roadster, Britain’s first plastic-bodied production car. Only 12 are made before the project is abandoned.
Britain’s New Car Covenant Purchase Scheme, originally introduced to prevent new cars being sold-on at a premium, is abolished.
General Motors Launch the Corvette, a radical glass-fibre-bodied roadster concept car featuring a wrap-around windshield and powered by a venerable straight six engine. Production is limited.
Porsche introduces the 550 ‘Spyder’ race-car with a triangulated tubular steel chassis, aluminium bodywork and a VW-based 4 cylinder ‘boxer’ engins. 550 Spyders dominate the 1500cc class at Le Mans and then the same class in the Pan Americana, Mexican road race.
The 50 millionth General Motors car rolls off the production line.
All Buick, Oldsmobile and Cadillac models feature wrap-around Panoramic windshields.
Ford introduces overhead valves on its V8 engines in Ford and Mercury models.
Nash merges with Hudson to form the American Motors Corporation.
Studebaker merges with Packard.
GM reveals the 370 horsepower turbine-powered Firebird I concept car.
The two seat Ford Thunderbird roadster is announced.
Lanchester offer the Sprite with automatic transmission, still a rarity in Europe.
Having re-established production of the ‘Beetle’ with much help from British Army personnel, Volkswagen start to focus on generating export sales.
Tubeless tyres (tires) are now offered on all new American cars.
Jaguar Cars replace the XK120 with the XK 140, featuring a 190 horsepower engine, mechanical refinements and chrome trim. The new Jaguar D Type race-car is introduced at Le Mans without success.
The revolutionary Citroen DS19 is introduced with a futuristic aerodynamic body, self-levelling hydropneumatic suspension, power steering and braking and automatic jacks.
McDonald’s opens its first drive-thru hamburger bar.
Chrysler launches ‘Imperial’ as a separates brand.
Kaiser goes out of business.
American car sales hit a record 7,915,000. Jaguar launch the MK 1 Family sports saloon (sedan) to broaden their market appeal. They also win at Le Mans with a much improved D-type.
Fuel supplies are seriously limited by the Suez crisis, resulting in rationing in Britain and other European countries and an upsurge of interest in economical micro-cars for personal transportation.
U.S. car stylists begin to adopt tail fins and rocket-shaped tail lamps as science fiction and space rockets enter the American consciousness.
The Ford Foundation offers over ten million Ford Motor Company shares for sale to the public.
BMC commissions Pininfarina to styles its new models.
Lanchester comes to the end of the road as Daimler discontinues production.
Ford of America offers seat belts to a disinterested public.
The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are finally abolished.
Jaguar D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a second successive year.
The Porsche 550A Spyder, a modified version of its predecessor, wins the Targa Florio road race on its debut, beating much more powerful competitors. It goes on to ‘wipe the floor’ at virtually every appearance.
The Lotus Elite (Type 14) is announced, featuring a revolutionary glassfibre monocoque construction.
Ford Motor Company introduces the Continental Mark II, priced at almost ,000.
The three millionth Mercury comes off Ford’s production line.
Packard and Chrysler offer pushbutton automatic transmissions.
Packard offers power door locks.
Chrysler offers an in-car record player.
80% of all new cars sold in America have a V-8 engine.
The American Congress approves construction of the 41,000 mile Interstate highway system.
The Nash and Hudson marques are discontinued by parent company AMC.
A new Fiat 500 is introduced featuring a rear-mounted vertical twin-cylinder air cooled engine.
Chrysler produce their ten millionth Plymouth.
The new Ford Skyliner features a retractable hardtop, a ‘first’ for a production car.
Ford introduces the Ranchero pickup.
Chevrolet, Pontiac and Rambler adopt fuel injection.
66% of all cars purchased in the USA are bought on extended finance.
Jaguar introduce the XK 150 and a D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a third successive year.
Work starts on the Ml ‘London to Birmingham’ Motorway, the UK’s first.
Roads around London are governed by a new 40mph speed limit.
To celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the Model T, Ford re-assembles a 1909 example.
Ford produce their fifty millionth car.
The revolutionary glassfibre Lotus Elite (Type 14) enters production. With all-round independent suspension and a 1,216 cc overhead cam Coventry Climax engine it has spectacular handling and is capable of 118mph! In spite of its success as a racecar Lotus will loose money on every one built.
With controversial styling and sophisticated features, the Ford Edsel is launched to a luke-warm reception.
Chrysler builds its twenty five millionth vehicle.
Packard production comes to an end.
The Austin-Healy ‘Frogeye’ Sprite is introduced.
The new chairman of BMC is Sir Leonard Lord.
A record one million cars are produced in Britain.
Toyotas and Datsuns are imported to the United States for the first time.
The Ford Thunderbird becomes a four-seater ‘personal luxury’ car.
American car sales drop by 31% due to an economic recession.
C F Kettering, inventor of the electric starter and Ethyl-Leaded Gasoline dies aged 82.
Porsche introduce the "RSK" Spyder, or Type 718 which continues to win class and outright honours in the hands of such drivers as Dan Gurney, Wolfgang von Trips and Jo Bonnier.
A fascination with the impending space-age inspires Cadillac to begin giving its new models fins and rocket-shaped taillights.
UK Government reduces Purchase Tax on new cars from 60 to 50 per cent.
Triumph introduce the Michelotti styled Herald, featuring all round independent suspension.
Lea Francis go out of business.
NSU announce that they will build Wankel rotary engined cars.
Dutch manufacturer DAF begins car production, using the Variomatic belt-drive automatic transmission.
The M1, Britain’s first motorway is opened by The Right Honourable Ernest Marples, minister of Transport.
British Motor Corporation introduces the Morris Mini-Minor and Austin Se7en variants, built on separate production lines at Cowley, Oxford and Longbridge, Birmingam to a revolutionary compact design by Alec Issigonis. Whichever brand of ‘Mini’, it features a rubber-cone suspension system and a gearbox built into the engine, beneath the crankshaft. Perhaps the Mini’s most significant contribution to the packaging efficiency of modern front-wheel-drive cars is its transversely mounted engine.
Jaguar launches the MK II family sports saloon (sedan) to great acclaim.
The Ford Anglia arrives. It is a small family car with conventional mechanical layout. Its unusual feature is a reverse-slope rear window, which ensures good headroom for rear-seat passengers.
Studebaker introduces the Lark, a compact car intended to compete with European imports.
An Aston-Martin DBR 1, driven by Caroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori wins the Le Mans 24 hours.
Eighty percent of United Stated families own at least one car.
The UK Daimler Company becomes part of Jaguar Cars.
The Japanese car industry manufactures 200,000 cars.
The Ford Anglia l05E is introduced with a four speed gearbox and a raked back rear window.
OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is formed to give the oil producing countries more power over crude oil prices.
The millionth Morris Minor leaves the production line, one of a series of 350 painted in a celebratory shade of lilac with white leather upholstery.
Jaguar Cars Limited buys Daimler and begins to offer ‘badge engineered’ Jaguars.
The Cortina Mk I is introduced by Ford of Britain.
BMC introduce the Morris I IOO featuring a revolutionary ‘Hydrolastic’ suspension system.
The ‘MOT’ test is introduced by Ernest Marples, requiring that all cars over 10 years old are subjected to an annual test.
BMC chief, Sir Leonard Lord becomes Lord Lambury.
Commercial vehicle producers Leyland Motors acquire Standard Triumph and AEC.
Porsche introduce the W-RS Spyder race-car with its well-proven flat four power unit.
Chevrolet introduce the Nova, a compact car with plain styling and 4 or 6 cylinder engines, designed to offer economical family motoring.
Ford UK introduces the Consul Cortina, an attractive medium-sized family saloon, powered by an 1198cc OHV engine. (The ‘Consul’ is dropped very quickly). Though launched as a two-door, a four-door body becomes available within a few months.
The W-RS Spyder, now powered by a 2.0-litre flat-eight engine, continues to build Porsche’s racing prowess by winning everything in sight.
The Leyland Motor Corporation formed under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Spurrier.
Ford’s Cortina DeLuxe is now available with a 1498cc engine and also as high-performance Lotus model featuring a twin-cam engine and major suspension modifications.
Lord Nuffield dies aged 86.
The Hillman Imp is unveiled to compete with the BMC Mini. It features a light-alloy 4 cylinder, 875cc slant-4 engine, originally developed by Coventry Climax to power fire pumps. Manufactured at Linwood, a new Scottish production plant, this is the first car since the 1931 Arrol Johnston, to be made in Scotland.
NSU announce the Spyder their first car to use a Wankel engine.
Rover introduces the 2000 P6 saloon which wins them the European Car of the Year Award.
In Italy Feruccio Lamborghini Automobili founded in Sant’Agata near Bologna. The debut of the prototype 350 GTV takes place at the Turin Motor Show.
Porsche’s W-RS Spyder continues its winning ways at Le Mans and the Nurburgring.
Triumph launches the 2000 family saloon.
The Ford Mustang is ‘released’ to great acclaim and achieves sales of more than 500,000 in its firs 18 months.
Following many years of crippling strikes at its British Light Steel Pressings Ltd factory, the Rootes Group sells a controlling interest to Chrysler.
Despite continuing disinterest, front seat belts supplied as standard in all American cars.
Having resigned his position after just 4 months in charge of The Leyland Motor Corporation Sir Henry Spurrier dies.
Porsche’s W-RS Spyder wins further season championships in the hands of Edgar Barth, before final retirement.
BMC’s intended merger with the Pressed Steel Company is subjected to a report by the Monopolies Commission.
The British government introduces a 70 mph maximum speed "as a four month experiment" which is still with us today.
An automatic transmission, specially designed by AP is available to Mini buyers.
Rolls Royce’s launch Silver Shadow its first unit constructed car.
Ralph Nader publishes his book ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ exposing safety standards severely compromised by USA manufacturers’ cost constraints. The rear-engined Chevrolet Corvair receives Nader’s particular attention.
Jensen FF sports coupe is launched, featuring Fergusson’s four wheel drive system, Italian styling, a powerful V8 engine and anti-lock brakes.
British Motor Holdings is created by merging The Jaguar Group (Jaguar, Daimler, Guy, Coventry Climax, Henry Meadows) with BMC.
Ford UK update the Cortina with smoother, but boxier styling.
Largely as a result of Ralph Nader’s expose of the American Motor industry the U.S. Congress passes a rigorous auto safety act. Rear seat belts now supplied as standard equipment in all cars sold in the USA.
Peugeot and Renault agree to establish a partnership organisation, La Francaise de Mecanique, to manufacture common mechanical parts.
Sir William Lyons retires as the Managing Director, becoming Chairman and Chief Executive as Jaguar Cars Limited and the British Motor Corporation Limited announce the merger of the two companies.
Panhard, France’s oldest car maker is disolved by its owners Citroen.
NSU produce the first series production passenger car to be powered by a Wankel engine, the Ro80.
Rover and Alvis are absorbed into the Leyland Motor Corporation.
Ford UK introduce the crossflow engine to their product range in 1300cc and 1600cc capacities.
Ford UK and Ford of Europe start to co ordinate development and production programmes to increase commonality of design and component use.
Ford introduces the Escort range, including a high performance ‘twin-cam’ engined version.
The largest car company in British history is formed as British Motor Holdings merges with Leyland Motors to create British Leyland Motor Corporation.
Rover offers the Buick-based V8 in the P6 body-shell to create the 3005, later re-named the 3500.
As bitter strikes cripple industry Renault lose production of I000,000 vehicles.
Volkswagen introduces the 411 or ‘Variant’. Based on an extended ‘Beetle’ floor-pan it features a contemporary body-style and 2 or 4 doors. An estate (station wagon) version is also available.
Citroen buys Maserati, primarily, to take advantage of its engine know-how. Their forthcoming SM coupé will be powered by a Maserati V6 engine.
David Brown is knighted.
Volkswagcn take over Audi.
Jaguar launches the XJ6.
The new British Leyland organisation introduces the Austin Maxi. Sir Alex Issigonis’s last project, in spite of its outstanding practicality, its boxy styling, sparse interior, lack of power and ‘notchy’ five-speed gearbox attracts criticism.
Renault and Peugeot start production of common components as a result of their 1966 agreement, at Douvrin, near Lens in Northern France.
Enzo Ferrari sells 50% of Ferrari’s share capital to Fiat.
Land Rover launches an entirely new concept. The Range Rover is a luxury off-road car and, as an immediate sales success it points the way for rivals, laying the foundation for a whole new market sector.
Citroen launches two new aerodynamic models, the GS family car and the Masserati-powered SM sports saloon.
Italian styling house Ghia of Turin is acquired from Alessandro de Tomaso by Ford.
Mercedes build the C III experimental car to act as a test-bed for future road-car developments. Featuring dramatic aerodynamic styling and powered by a triple rotor Wankel engine developing 280bhp, it achieved a top speed of 160mph.
Japan’s monthly production output of 200,000 cars, makes it the world’s second biggest motor manufacturer.
Volkswagen reveals the K70, their first water cooled model.
Kjell Qvale, Norwegan born head of the ‘British Motor Car Distributors’ in San Francisco, takes over Jensen Motors.
The Chrysler 160/l80 range is launched at the Paris Salon.
The General Motors’ ‘family’ come together from all parts of the globe, under the leadership of Opel, Germany, to begin a project which will result in a ‘World Car’ to rival the success of the VW beetle. For Opel it will result in the Kadette C, small family car. Internationally it becomes known as GM’s ‘T Car’.
Jensen ceases production of the four-wheel-drive ‘FF’ sports-car, but continues with the two-wheel drive ‘Interceptor’ version.
Morris Minor production finally comes to an end.
Peugeot and Renault join forces with Volvo to form a new joint-venture organisation. PRV will design and produce V-engines at their Douvrin production plant.
Mercedes preview the C111-2 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Once again a test-bed vehicle it features a four-rotor Wankel engine rated at 350 bhp which took the car to 180mph.
Aston Martin’s financial performance causes difficulties, prompting the David Brown Group to sell to financiers. The DBS stays in production.
Jaguar reveals their VI2 production engine, making it available in an enlarged E-type as well as XJ6 and Daimler sedans. This makes them one of only a handful of manufacturers who have ever offered this configuration on a production basis.
Maserati introduce the Bora.
A record l,900,000 cars produced by British motor industry in this year.
The success of Japanese cars becomes evident when Datsun becomes the second biggest importer of cars into Britain.
Maserati introduces the Merak.
Lotus Esprit mid-engined concept car shown on Giorgio Giugiario’s Ital Design stand at the Turin Motor Show.
Sir William Lyons retires as chairman of Jaguar, exactly 50 years after forming the company. Labour relations and production quality problems beset the whole British Leyland organisation, of which Daimler-Jaguar is a significant part.
The Arab-Israeli War causes fuel supply problems and steep rises in pump prices for motorists throughout the world and the realisation that oil is a finite resource. The OPEC organisation becomes more powerful. In Britain motorists queue for petrol and speeds are restricted to 50mph to conserve national stocks and consumption.
Ford opens Bordeaux plant to manufacture automatic transmissions.
Volksvagen ‘Beetle’ production beats the Model T’s record.
Chevrolet offers airbags in some models as a reaction to a rise in fatal car accidents in the USA.
Alfa Romeo introduce the Alfasud, a small family car featuring front wheel drive, a flat-four ‘boxer’ engine, nimble handling and a bonded-in windscreen. The car is made in a new purpose built plant near Naples in Southern Italy – ‘sud’ being Italian for South.
The Bertone-styled Maserati Khamsin is launched into a tough sales environment.
The first fruits of the GM ‘T Car’ project appear in Brasil, with the launch of the Chevrolet Chevette and in Germany with the Opel Kadett C. Although superficially different all T Cars share the same mechanical configuration and many significant components.
E. L. Cord dies
Gabriel Voisin, aeronautical pioneer, industrialist and car manufacturer dies.
The last of 11,916,519 VW ‘Beetles’ to be built at Wolfsburg, leaves the production line.
The VW Golf, a completely new water-cooled, front wheel drive model becomes and instant sales success and Karmann start production of the Scirocco sports coupe version. Both cars styled by Georgetto Guigaro.
Peugeot takes over Citroen to form PSA.
Plans for the Chevrolet Vega to be powered by the repeatedly delayed outcome of General Motors’ Wankel rotary engine project are abandoned and production continues with an alloy block/iron head 4 cylinder unit.
As a result of the previous year’s the fuel crisis, American sales of large-engined cars have slumped and manufacturers start to look at ways of improving fuel econonmy.
Ford begins research into the Stirling ‘hot air’ engine but having made considerable progress, as fuel prices drop back the urge to take the project all the way to production diminishes.
In spite of one million 127s leaving their production lines Fiat find themselves in deep financial difficulties.
The last E Type Jaguar leaves the Coventry factory.
The Douvrin-built PRV V6 engine appears for the first time in the Volvo 264 and soon after in the Peugeot 504 Coupé and Cabriolet models.
In an attempt to cut fatalities in the United States the maximum speed limit is reduced to 55 mph.
Production of the Ford Escort MK1comes to an end.
Ford introduce the Escort MK2 with a squarer body style.
In America VW launch the Golf as the Rabbit.
Rolls Royce unveil the Camargue with Italian styling by Pininfarina, hand- built on the Silver Shadow floor pan at their Mulliner Park Ward coach-building division. Priced at £29,250, it is the first car in the world to feature completely automatic split-level air conditioning and the first Rolls Royce to be designed in metric dimensions.
Porsche announce the 911 Carrera Turbo.
Chrysler UK, in financial difficulties is propped up by the British Government. The introduction of the French built Alpine brings in vital sales.
Volvo takes a majority shareholding in Holland’s DAF car and truck manufacturer.
The Douvrin-built PRV V6 is introduced in the Peugeot 604 and Renault 30 TS models.
Citroen replaces the DS21 with the CX which is voted European Car of the Year.
British Leyland, struggling against a tide of strikes and a poor reputation gets an injection of £200,000,000 from the UK Government.
Jaguar launch the XJS to replace the E type. Due to stringent American crash regulations earlier plans to include a roadster in the range have been dropped.
Lotus Cars start production of the new mid-engined Esprit and confirm their move up-market with front-engined Eclat.
All American cars now come with catalytic converters in the exhaust system in an effort to cut air polluting emissions.
Citroën pulls out of Maserati, leaving Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI to come to the rescue a few months later.
VW introduce the Polo, the third of their ‘new generation’ cars.
The UK gets its own version of the GM T-Car, the Vauxhall Chevette. A unique aerodynamic ‘droop-snoot’ front-end, designed by Vauxhall Chief-Stylist, Wayne Cherry complements the neat hatch-back body tub.
Australia launches its version of the ‘T Car’, the Holden Gemini, in 4-door saloon (sedan) and stylish coupé versions.
The Chrysler Alpine voted European Car of the Year.
The Renault Alpine A310 sports-car is launched with a rear mounted PRV ‘Douvrin’ V6 engine.
Ford’s first front drive car, the Fiesta, announced.
The Golf GTi debuts at the Frankfurt International Motor Show establishing a new market sector later known as the ‘Hot Hatch’.
Rover launch the 3500 ‘SD1’ a roomy saloon with Ferrari Daytona inspired styling and the ex-Buick alloy V8 engine.
VW introduce a small diesel engine to the golf range.
Mercedes reveal the C111-3. Where its two predecessors had been powered by Wankel rotary engines, this one has a 5 cylinder turbo-charged/inter-cooled Diesel engine producing 180 bhp. At Nardo test track on June 12th, at an average speed of around 150mph, the C111-3 either establishes or brake a total of 16 world speed and endurance records, some of which pertained regardless of its engine type.the
Vauxhall’s ‘T Car’ Chevette appears in the UK as a 2 or 4 door saloon (sedan).
Michael Edwardes takes over the helm of the British Leyland conglomerate, together with its labour relations, production quality and public perception .
Volkswagen cease production of the ‘Beetle’ in Germany forty years after production began.
Rover’s 3500 ‘SD1’ wins the European Car of the Year award.
Merger plans between Swedish manufacturers Saab and Volvo are abandoned.
Production of the Wankel rotary engined NSU Ro80 comes to an end.
Porsche introduce 924 and 928 models, both featuring front-mounted water-cooled engines and rear transaxles. The 924 is an aborted VW project and thus contains a high percentage of WV parts-bin components, including the engine from the Transporter van. The V8 powered 928 is eventually intended to take over from the 911 and wins the European Car of The Year Award.
The Volvo DAF conglomerate slips into financial difficulties. The Dutch Government comes to the rescue with financial aid.
British Leyland shows substantial signs of recovery in the hands of Michael Edwardes but the company’s future is far from secure.
Toyo Kogyo launch the Mazda RX7, a two-seat sports coupe powered by a Wankel rotary engine.
Ford introduces the Fiesta, their first front-wheel-drive small family car. It is to be made at plants in England, Spain and Germany.
Rolls Royce Motor Company is sold to Vickers for £38m as part of the Rolls-Royce engineering group.
Rover begins collaboration with Honda.
Maserati Bora production comes to an end.
Simca- Matra complete the first model of new and practical concept in personal transportation. Based on a single-box van-like shape but with a car-like interior and comfortable flexible seating for up to seven people, the P17 concept is rejected by Talbot-Simca, prompting Matra to approach Renault and to develop the concept further in prototype P18. The MPV is on its way!
Rear wheel drive Escort Mk2 production comes to an end to make way for the new front-wheel-drive Escort Mk3.
Bitter strikes at British Leyland provoke chairman Sir Michael Edwardes to threaten "Return to work or lose your jobs."
Daimler-Jaguar division of British Leyland gets John Egan as its new Chairman. Egan sets about rebuilding pride in the quality of design and production, lost since British Leyland’s formation.
General Motors announces the launch of the Saturn project in the USA, with the intention of creating a new brand and new products from scratch.
John Z DeLorean, former General Motors high-flyer, launches the DMC-12, his stainless steel gull-wing dream car into a world of recession and high interest rates. Designed by Georgetto Guigaro, engineered by Lotus Cars and powered by the Douvrin PRV V6 engine it appears over-priced against stiff opposition and quality issues compound the problem.
Maserati launch the Biturbo range of coupes, spyders and saloons powered by twin-turbocharged all-alloy V6 engines.
Honda starts production at its first US factory.
Having built 8,563 DMC-12s, the DeLorean Motor Company’s factory in Northern Ireland goes into receivership and after a few months, the British government, DeLorean’s biggest creditor by far, issues orders to shut it down.
Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman dies suddenly aged 54, having grown Lotus into an extraordinarily successful Grand Prix team, a substantial low-volume sports car production specialist and an extremely reputable auto-engineering consultancy.
Lexus is announced as the name of Toyota’s new luxury brand in the USA and Europe, intended to allow them to overcome brand prejudice and compete head to head with the prestige European and American manufacturers.
Maserati end production of the Merak
Japanese manufacturer Toyo Kogyo changes its name to Mazda Motor Corporation.
Renault release the new Espace, the first MPV, designed, developed and built for them by Matra at their assembly plant in Romorontin, near Paris.
Chrysler buys AMC and takes over production of the Jeep range.
Founder of Jaguar, Sir William Lyons, dies as the company sees its reputation for quality and value return.
Volkswagen takes a 51% share in Spanish car makers SEAT.
The Ford Motor Company acquires a 75% shareholding in Aston Martin Lagonda.
The new Lincoln Continental is Ford’s first car with a six-cylinder engine and front-wheel drive.
Fiat acquires additional shares in Ferrari, taking its total shareholding to 90%.
Enzo Ferrari dies in Modena, aged 90.
British Aerospace buys Rover Group.
General Motors takes a 50% stake in Saab of Sweden.
General Motors introduces the Geo brand to market Suzuki, Isuzu, and Toyota models in the USA.
Lexus introduces its first model, the LS400.
Honda announces plans to establish European car production by expanding its existing manufacturing facilities at Swindon UK
Honda starts Civic production at its East Liberty, Ohio plant.
Ford takes over Jaguar Cars, promising to build on the unique identity and brand values of the Jaguar name.
Vickers Rolls Royce and BMW announce a joint venture company to build aero-engines – BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH.
Following Czech government approval, VW establishes a new partnership with Skoda.
The Dodge Viper is released with a steel chassis, a glass-fibre body and a 400 horsepower light-alloy V10 engine.
Maserati is bought outright by Fiat.
With development input from parent company Ford, Jaguar announces a vastly improved XJ6.
Sir David Brown, former owner of Aston-Martin Lagonda, dies aged 89.
Aston Martin introduce the DB7, with sleek, modern bodywork, strong six cylinder engines and Jaguar XJS underpinnings. Produced at a dedicated factory in Bloxham, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, it soon begins to achieve sales levels previously unheard of for any Aston Martin.
BMW buys Rover Cars from British Aerospace.
McLaren Cars, previously successful as Formula 1 racing car constructors, introduce the F1 sports supercar. Designed by Gordon Murray and Peter Stevens it features a BMW V12 engine, a top speed well in excess of 200 mph and a price in excess of £500,000.00.
The Ford Motor Company acquires the outstanding 25% interest Aston Martin Lagonda to gain complete control.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York places an early E-Type roadster on permanent display, only the third car to given this honour.
Jaguar introduces the V8 Powered XK8 as a replacement for the venerable XJS.
Vickers put Rolls-Royce Motor Cars up for sale to the highest bidder.
Ferrari takes control of Maserati, and closes the factory for a complete refit and modernisation.
VW announce the New Beetle. A modern stylised interpretation of the original, it shares its floor-pan and many mechanical components with the front-wheel drive Golf.
Rolls Royce is sold after an acrimonious bidding war between Volkswagen and BMW. The final outcome is that, while VW wins the production plant at Crewe and the Bentley brand name, BMW buys the rights to use the Rolls Royce name and announces its plan to develop a new generation of cars which will be built at its own British factory from 2003.
Chrysler and Daimler Benz merge to form Daimler-Chrysler. Initial indications are that the two businesses will remain autonomous.
Volvo sells its car-making division to Ford Motor Company but continues to manufacture trucks.
Aston Martin becomes part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group joining Jaguar, Lincoln and Volvo, enabling it to call on a pool of expertise, financial and technical resources which would otherwise have been way beyond its reach.
Having invested considerably in the Rover Group and struggled unsuccessfully to make it pay, BMW withdraws and ‘sells’ Rover and MG to The Phoenix Group for a token £1.00. BMW retains the rights to brands Mini, Triumph, Riley and Land Rover, the last of which it then sells to Ford.
Under the ownership of BMW Rolls-Royce move production from Derby to a new, purpose built factory next to the old Grand Prix circuit at Goodwood, West Sussex.
BMW release the ‘NEW MINI’, a modern interpretation of the original Mini built at the former Morris Abingdon plant. Powered by a South-American built, Chrysler-sourced engine, it retains the original’s cheeky appeal and dynamic handling.
In the UK, a new Licence-plate numbering system is introduced.
Jaguar Cars introduce the X Type, based on an extended version of Ford’s European Mondeo floorpan with transverse engine and 4 wheel-drive.
Rolls Royce complete their new factory and commence production of the new Phantom, due for delivery to customers on the 1st January 2003.
Named after the company’s founder Enzo, Ferrari introduce the Enzo supercar. Made of carbonfibre and incorporating much else in the way of Formula 1 technology, its all-alloy, 660 bhp, V12 engine endows the Enzo with a top speed of 217.5 mph.
First customers for Rolls Royce’s New Phantom take delivery on 1st January as promised and world-wide deliveries commence.
Production of the ‘Beetle’ finally comes to an end at VW’s Puebla, plant in Mexico.
Matra’s production-line closes at Romorontin, following commercial failure of Renault’s Avantime and their decision to take Espace production in-house. Matra and its facilities are sold to Italian styling house and niche production specialists Pininfarina SpA, who rename the company Matra Automobile Engineering.
Peter Morgan, son of Morgan founder ‘HFS’ dies aged 84, leaving the business in the safe hands of his son Charles.
Now owned by Volkwagen, Bentley introduces their first all-new design. Based on VW’s large-car platform, the new Continental GT features a contemporary body (styled in-house), 4 wheel drive and an extensively re-engineered version of VW’s 6 litre W12 engine, twin-turbocharged to produce 552bhp.
Car production in the UK reaches its highest level in five years. Britain’s biennial motor show has its last event at the National Exhibition Centre before its move back to London.
More than 40 years after it was launched, the e-type Jaguar has a special exhibition devoted to it at London’s Design Museum.
Production begins on the Aston Martin Volante.
24 year old Russian multimillionaire Nikolas Smolensky purchased Blackpool based TVR for £15 million.
MG Rover -the last "traditional" British mid-sized car manufacturer goes into administration with the key assets finally being purchased by China based Nanjing Automobie Group. Thousands of jobs are lost although there is hope that small scale car manufacturing could return to the same Longbridge plant sometime in the future.
Elsewhere in the Midlands, production begins on the new Aston Martin Vantage.
Honda and the MINI brand continue to help the UK economy as both enjoy increased investment resulting in new jobs. Honda plans to add a further 700 people to its UK workforce, while the world-wide success of the MINI will result in a further 1200 jobs in manufacturing and assorted component industries.
Nissan announce that its new Qashqai car will be built at the company’s Sunderland plant, with the cars being exported across the globe, including Japan. The Qashqai is described as a crossover -effectively a passenger car with a sleek dynamic top half combined with SUV attributes of large pronounced wheel arches and slightly elevated ground clearance. In terms of its size its sits between C-segment hatchbacks and SUVs.
Lotus announces it is to produce a new mid-engined sports car which should be available in about two years time.
The 1½ millionth Honda Civic rolls of the production line at Bridgend.
TVR, the innovative Blackpool based specialist sports car company finally closes its doors after a long battle to remain in production. Owners, enthusiasts and employees meet up for a final celebration in Blackpool.
The British Motor Show returns to London after several decades in the West Midlands. The new venue is the Excel Centre on the banks of the River Thames and nearly 500,000 people attend.
The 30,000th Aston Martin is produced, while the Jaguar XK coupe wins Britain’s car of the year award and luxury car of the year awards.
The Bentley marque enjoys continued success under the parentage of Volkswagen and its newest model is the company’s fastest ever production car -the Bentley Continental GT Speed. It has a top speed of over 200 mph and can get from 0-60 mph in just 4.3 seconds. It is offered for sale in Britain at £137,500.
Manufacturers around the world put more effort and resources into designing and building more environmentally friendly vehicles as the price of oil increases and there is greater awareness of the damage that harmful pollutants are causing from traditional petrol based engined cars.
Britain’s young motor racing star Lewis Hamilton very nearly becomes the new world F1 motor racing champion in his first season -eventually being beaten in the final race. His success though reignites interest in motor sport around the world.
Ford accepts an offer by the rapidly expanding Tata Motors of India for the purchase of Land Rover and Jaguar. The Indian company say their aim is to ensure the cars will remain essentially British.
As the Model T celebrates its 100th anniversary, Ford also announces plans for a year long celebration of the iconic car around the world. One initiative is for a surviving car to be displayed in the "glass tank’ outside the Design Museum in London.
The new Roewe 550 is unveiled at the Shanghai Motor Show in China with the hope that the car may eventually be produced at the old MG Rover plant at Longbridge.
In the US, General Motors announces annual losses for 2007 of billion -the largest ever loss by a US car manufacturer and a further sign that many of the older established car makers are struggling to compete with the surge of production from Asia.
See – History of Motor Car / Automobile Inventions and Improvements