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Portrait of Antero de Quental(1943) – José de Almada Negreiros (1893 – 1970)
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Image by pedrosimoes7
Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Modern Collection, Lisbon, Portugal

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ABOUT THE WORK

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

ANTERO DE QUENTAL (1842 – 1891)

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY LIFE AND CHILDHOOD

He was born in Ponta Delgada on the island of São Miguel, in the Azores, into one of the oldest families of the provincial captaincy system. Antero was baptized on 2 May 1842 (few days after his birth), much to the rejoicing of his mother.

His parents, Fernando de Quental (Solar do Ramalho; 10 May 1814 – São Miguel Island, Ponta Delgada, Matriz; 7 March 1873), a veteran from Portuguese Liberal Wars who took part in the Landing of Mindelo and, in his liberal enthusiasm and wife Ana Guilhermina da Maia (Setúbal, 16 July 1811 – Lisbon 28 November 1876), a devout Roman Catholic. He was also a relative of Frei Bartolomeu de Quental, founder of the Congregation of the Oratory in Portugal.

He began to write poetry at an early age, chiefly, though not entirely, devoting himself to the sonnet.

He took French lessons under António Feliciano de Castilho, a leading figure of Portuguese Romantic movement, who resided in Ponta Delgada at the time. Antero was seven when he enrolled in Liçeu Açoriano (a private school), where he received English lessons from a Mr. Rendall, a renowned prospector on the island.

In August 1852, he moved with his mother to the Portuguese capital, where he studied at Colégio do Pórtico, whose headmaster was his old tutor Castilho. But the institution closed its doors, and Antero returned to Ponta Delgada in 1853. On writing to his old headmaster, he would say:

Your excellency once put-up with me at your Colégio do Pórtico when I was still ten years old, and I confess that I owe you much for your great patience, for the little French that I have known until this day.

Throughout the latter part of his life Quental would dedicate his studies to poetry, politics and philosophy. By 1855, at the age of 16, he had returned to Lisbon, then to Coimbra where he graduates from the Colégio de São Bento in 1857.

COIMBRA YEARS

In the fall of 1856 he enrolled at the University of Coimbra, where he studied Law, manifesting his first socialist ideals.

The important fact in my life during those years, and probably the most decisive one, was the sort of intellectual and moral revolution that took place within myself, as I left a poor child, pulled away from an almost patriarchal living of a remote province immersed in its placid historical slumber, towards the middle of the irrespective intellectual agitation of a urban center, where the newly found currents of the modern spirit would come more or less to repercute.

As all my Catholic and traditional upbringing swept away instantly, I fell into a state of doubt and uncertainty, as ever the more pungent as I, a naturally religious spirit, had been born to believe placidly and obey without effort to an unknown rule. I found myself without direction, a terrible state of mind, shared more or less by all those of my generation, the first one in Portugal to ever leave the old road of tradition with decision and awareness.

If to this I add a burning imagination, with which Nature had blessed me in excess, the awakening of the loving passions known to early manhood, turbulence and petulance, the enthusiasms and discouragements of a meridional temperament, a lot of good faith and good will but a severe lack of patience and method, and the portrait of my qualities and defects with which I, at 18 years old, penetrated in the vast world of thought and poetry, shall be drawn.

He soon distinguished himself for his oral and written talents, as well as turbulent and eccentric nature. While in Coimbra, he founded the Sociedade do Raio, which pretended to promote literature to the masses, but which launched blasphemous challenges to religion.

In 1861, he published his first sonnets. Four years later, he published Odes Modernas, influenced by the Socialist Experimentalism of Proudhon, who championed an intellectual revolution.

During that year a conflict (which would later be known as Questão Coimbrã) would develop between the traditionalist poets, championed by António Feliciano de Castilho (at that time the chief living poet of the elder generation), and a group of students (which included Antero Quintal, Teófilo Braga, Viera de Castro, Ramalho Ortigão, Guerra Junqueiro, Eça de Queiros, Oliveira Martins, Jaime Batalha Reis and Guilherme de Azevedo, among others).

The contact with the nation’s cultural and literary elite, the liberal and progressives in academia, did not identify with the aesthetic formalism in the literature of the day. Accusing this modernist group of poetic exhibitionism, obscurity, and generally a lack of good sense and taste, Castilho attacked the modernist poets for instigating the intellectual revolution.

In response, Antero published Bom Senso e Bom Gosto, A Dignidade das Letras and Literaturas Oficiais in which he defended their independence, pointing to the mission of poets in an era of great transformation, the necessity of being the messengers of the great ideological questions of the day, and included the ridiculousness and insignificance of Castilho’s style of poetry under the circumstances. This gave rise to the 1865 controversy known as the "Coimbra Question", and his groups reference as the 70s Generation which opposed the ultra-romantic group of António Feliciano de Castilho.

UNQUIET MATURITY

He then traveled, engaged in political and socialist agitation, and found his way through a series of disappointments to the mild pessimism. Strangely, it animated his latest poetry. In 1866 he went to live in Lisbon, experimented with proletarianism, worked as a typographer (at the National Press), a job that he also continued in Paris (where he went to support French workers), between January and February 1867.

He briefly went to the United States, but returned to Lisbon in 1868, where he formed Cenáculo, along with Eça de Queirós, Guerra Junqueiro and Ramalho Ortigão; an intellectual group of anarchists against many of the political, social and intellectual conventions of the day.

Paradoxically, he was a founder of the Partido Socialista Português (Portuguese Socialist Party). In 1869, he founded the newspaper, A República – Jornal da Democracia Portuguesa with Oliveira Martins, and in 1872, along with José Fontana, he began to edit the magazine O Pensamento Social.

In the year of the Paris Commune (1871) he organized the famous Conferências do Casino (English: Casino Conferences), which marked the beginning of the spread of Socialist and Anarchist ideas in Portugal, distinguishing himself as a crusader for republican ideals.

In 1873, he inherited a sizable amount of money, which allowed him to live reasonably. Owing to tuberculosis in the following year, he rested, but returned to re-edit his Odes Modernas. He moved to Oporto in 1879, and in 1886 he published his best poetic work, Sonetos Completos, which included many passages considered autobiographical and symbolistic.

In 1880, he adopted the two daughters of his friend, Germano Meireles, who died in 1877. During a trip to Paris he became seriously ill, and in September 1881, under counsel from his medic, he began residing in Vila do Conde, where he remained until May 1891 (with a few intervals in the Azores and Lisbon). His time in Vila do Conde was considered by the author the best of his life. To Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcelos, a friend, he wrote of his need to end his poetry and begin a philosophical phase in his writing, to develop and synthesize his philosophy, adding:

Here the beaches are plentiful and beautiful, and through them I travel or stretch in the sun with a voluptuousness that only the poets and the lizards that love the sun…[citation needed]

In 1886, his Sonetos Completos, collected and prefaced by Oliveira Martins, were published. Between March and October 1887 he returned to the Azores, then back to Vila do Conde.

The Spaniard, Miguel de Unamuno, considered them "one of the greatest examples of universal poetry, which will live as long as people have memories."[citation needed]

In reaction to the English Ultimatum, on 11 January 1890, he agreed to preside over the minor Liga Patriótica do Norte (English: Northern Patriotic League), although his involvement was ephemeral. When he eventually returned to Lisbon, he stayed at the home of his sister, Ana de Quental.

Throughout his life Antero had oscillated between pessimism and depression; afflicted with what have been Bipolar Disorder, at the time of his last trip to Lisbon he was in a state of permanent depression, which was also accentuated by spinal disease. After one month in Lisbon he returned once again to Ponta Delgada around June 1891. On September 11 of the same year, at approximately 20:00 PM, he committed suicide by a double gunshot wound through the mouth in the bunk of a local garden park on which a wall read the word Esperança (Hope). "Of all things, the worst is having been born", he wrote in a poem.

WORKS

"Properly speaking there has been no Portuguese literature before Antero de Quental; before that there has been either a preparation for a future literature, or foreign literature written in the Portuguese language.”

" Fernando Pessoa, letter to William Bentley, 1915"

Antero stands at the head of modern Portuguese poetry after João de Deus. His principal defect is monotony: his own self is his solitary theme, and he seldom attempts any other form of composition than the sonnet.

On the other hand, few poets who have chiefly devoted themselves to this form have produced so large a proportion of really exquisite work. The comparatively few pieces in which be either forgets his doubts and inward conflicts, or succeeds in giving them an objective form, are among the most beautiful in any literature. The purely introspective sonnets are less attractive, but equally finely wrought, interesting as psychological studies, and impressive from their sincerity. His mental attitude is well described by himself as the effect of Germanism on the unprepared mind of a Southerner.

He had learned much, and half-learned more, which he was unable to assimilate, and his mind became a chaos of conflicting ideas, settling down into a condition of gloomy negation, save for the one conviction of the vanity of existence, which ultimately destroyed him. A healthy participation in public affairs might have saved him, but he seemed incapable of entering upon any course that did not lead to delusion and disappointment.

As a prose writer Quental displayed high talents, though he wrote little. His most important prose is the Considerações sobre a philosophia da historia literaria Portugueza, but he earned fame by his pamphlets on the Coimbra question, Bom senso e bom gosto, a letter to Castilho, and A dignidade das lettras e litteraturas officiaes.

His friend Oliveira Martins edited the Sonnets (Oporto, 1886), supplying an introductory essay; and an interesting collection of studies on the poet by the leading Portuguese writers appeared in a volume entitled Anthero de Quental. In Memoriam (Oporto, 1896). The sonnets have been translated into many languages; into English by Edgar Prestage (Anthero de Quental, Sixty-four Sonnets, London, 1894), together with a striking autobiographical letter addressed by Quental to his German translator, Dr. Storck.

BIOGRAPHY OF THE PAINTER

BIOGRAPHY

José de Almada Negreiros first debuts as a caricaturist, in 1911. He participates in the I and II Exhibits of Portuguese Caricaturists, in 1912 and 1913. In 1913 he produces his first works in oil paint for the tailor house Alfaiataria Cunha, and holds his first solo exhibition at the International School of Lisbon. In March 1914 he publishes his first poem. In 1915, he collaborates in the first issue of the literary magazine Orpheu and illustrates the prospectus for the magazine Contemporânea.

That year also marked the arrival of Robert and Sonia Delaunay to Portugal, with whom Almada maintains close contact.

Searching, among the European avant-garde movements, a course for his artistic and literary individuality, worthy of the “Portuguese Fatherland of the Twentieth Century”, as he wrote in his Ultimatum Futurista às Gerações Portuguesas do Século XX [Futurist Ultimatum for the Portuguese Generations of the Twentieth Century] of 1917, Almada writes A Cena do Ódio [The Scene of Hate] (1915), Manifesto Anti-Dantas [Anti-Dantas Manifest] and Litoral [Coastline] (1916), A Engomadeira [The Ironing Lady] and K4 O Quadrado Azul [K4 The Blue Square] (1917). His second solo exhibition is held at Jose Pacheco’s Arts Gallery in September 1916, already at a distance from the earlier caricaturist exhibits.

The Futurist label which he assumes with Santa-Rita Pintor in 1917 – the year of the First Futurist Conference and Futurist Portugal – is provocatively adopted as a banner for modernity and for the fight against nostalgia.

The Lisbon representations of the Ballets Russes, in 1917 and 1918, affected the artist deeply; encouraging the creation of a series of ballets represented by amateurs and children, in particular by the young girls Lalá, Tareco, Tatão and Zeca, with whom he formed the “Club das Cinco Cores” [Five Colors Club].

The poetics of “Almadian” ingenuity, intimately related to this group, fully developed in Paris, where the artist lived between 1919 and 1920. Here, Almada somewhat isolated himself, pursuing his apprenticeship outside the sphere of academies and workshops, only tangentially contacting with the artistic vanguards.

Back in Lisbon, the artist held his third solo exhibition at the Theater São Carlos, presenting a series of drawings created in Paris. There he recites his poem-conference A Invenção do Dia Claro [The Invention of the Bright Day], a poetic manifest of ingenuity, published in 1921. During the 1920’s he published Pierrot e Arlequim [Pierrot and Arlequim] (1924) and began to write Nome de Guerra [Name of War] (1925); he also collaborated in several magazines, publishing works in Contemporânea, Athena, Presença, Diário de Lisboa, and Sempre Fixe.

He participated in the Exposição dos Cinco Independentes [Exhibit of the Five Independents] (1923) and in the I e II Autumn Exhibits (1925 and 1926). He painted Auto-Retrato num Grupo [Self-Portrait in a Group] e Banhistas [Bathers] for the café Brasileira (1925), and Nu Feminino [Female Nude] for the Bristol Club (1926), and was part of the “modern” artists who, led by José Pacheco, attempted, but failed, to enter the National Society of Fine Arts, in Lisbon. And, moreover, he discovers that “it is living which is impossible in Portugal” (Modernismo, 1926).

Thus Almada went to Madrid, between 1927 and 1932. There, he became actively involved in the artistic and literary scene, interacting and collaborating with many significant artists, architects and writers of Spanish Modernism. Back again in Lisbon, he proclaims the conference Direcção Única [Single Direction], defending unity between the individual and the collective, “these two equal, reciprocal, values which depend on each other and, when isolated, kill themselves with their own hands.” This relationship was, thus, difficult, but the I Oficial Exhibit of Modern Art in March 1935, an initiative of António Ferro, a personality who had been close to the generation that had sprung from Orpheu and was now director of the newly born National Propaganda Secretary, gave him hope. “Being an artist is the direct result of mankind and society; it is a legitimate place for certain individuals”, “the duty of public authorities is merely not to ignore, and to recognize certain values shown to them by humanity and society”, “it is with great respect that I see, for the first time in my country, public authorities alongside Portugal’s youngest art”.

With an already defined artistic “personality” and achieving an emotional (thanks to his marriage to the painter Sarah Affonso in March 1934) and financial stability (due to the public commissions he starts to receive), Almada followed alone through the path opened by his past comrades, heading for consecration. He is praised as a writer, from the publication of Nome de Guerra in 1938 on, inaugurating the collection of “Modern Portuguese Authors”, organized by João Gaspar Simões for Edições Europa.

As a painter he has been rewarded in 1942 (the Columbano Award), 1946 (the Domingos Sequeira Award), 1957 (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation) and 1966 (by the newspaper Diário de Notícias).

He was the author of the fresco decorations for the Maritime Stations in Alcantara (1943 -1945) and Rocha Conde Óbidos (1946-1949), as well as the creator of portraits of Fernando Pessoa for the restaurant Irmãos Unidos (1954) and for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (1964).

As an art theorist, he wrote Ver [Seeing] (1943), Mito – Alegoria – Símbolo [Myth – Allegory – Symbol] (1948), and A Chave Diz: Faltam Duas Tábuas e Meia no Todo da Obra de Nuno Gonçalves [The Key Says: Two and a Half Panels Are Lacking in the Whole of Nuno Gonçalves’ Work] (1950). These texts theorize the relentless pursuit of a canon, a foundation for universal creation, questions which Almada explored artistically in a series of four abstract oil paintings, exposed at the I Exhibit of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (1957) and later recapitulated in the wall panel Começar [Beginning] (1968-1969) for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s head office.

Sara Afonso-Ferreira

SOURCE: gulbenkian.pt/cam/en/artist/jose-de-almada-negreiros-2/

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Merlin Helicopter At Southend Air Show 2011
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Image by Feggy Art
The AgustaWestland AW101 (rebranded from EH101 in June 2007) is a medium-lift helicopter for military applications but also marketed for civil use. The helicopter was developed as a joint venture between Westland Helicopters in the UK and Agusta in Italy (now merged as AgustaWestland). The aircraft is manufactured at the AgustaWestland factories in Yeovil, England and Vergiate, Italy. The name Merlin is used for AW101s in the British, Danish and Portuguese militaries.

In Spring 1977, the UK Ministry of Defence issued a requirement for an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopter to replace the Royal Navy’s Westland Sea Kings. Westland responded with a design designated the WG.34 that was then approved for development. Meanwhile, the Marina Militare (Italian Navy) was also seeking a replacement for its (Agusta-built) Sea Kings, leading Agusta to discussions with Westland about the possibility of a joint development. This culminated in the joint venture being finalised in November 1979 and a new London-based company, EH Industries Limited (EHI), being formed in June the following year to manage the project.

As the design studies progressed, EHI became aware of a broader market for an aircraft with the same capabilities as those required by the British and Italian navies. On 12 June 1981, the UK confirmed their participation, with an initial budget of £20 billion to develop nine pre-series examples. A major agreement securing funding for the development of the EH101 program was signed by both the British and Italian governments in 1984. At the 1985 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget, Agusta showed a mock-up of a utility version of the new helicopter, leading to a more generalised design that could be customised. After a lengthy development, the first prototype flew on 9 October 1987.

In 1989 demand for the EH101 was uncertain, the American Blackhawk was providing competition with potential export customers, and neither Britain or Italy had placed production orders yet. The Canadian government had expressed considerable interest in 1991 in acquiring up to 43 EH101s to replace their own aging naval helicopters; however with the end of the Cold War they were branded as excessive by several politicians and the acquisition was aborted in 1993. Britain maintained its commitment to the project, ordering 22 EH101 helicopters in February 1995; Italy also pressed ahead with its order for 16 EH101s in October 1995.

The first group of production EH101s for the RAF began arriving in 1997. In 2002 Westland made an unsolicited and unsuccessful offer to provide the MoD with an enhanced version of the Merlin to meet the UK’s demand for lift capability. Westland and Agustaclosing down EHI as a separate entity shortly afterwards. Consequently in June 2007 the EH101 was re-branded as the AW101.

Street Art – Crosses Green, Cork.
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Image by infomatique
Cork is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland

If you ever get the opportunity to do so you should visit the City of Cork but Don’t visit this week as the city will be locked down for the Queen of England’s visit in one of the security operations the city has ever seen.
This coming friday The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh will visit the English Market and UCC’s Tyndall research institute on the final leg of their four day state visit to Ireland.

Cork was originally a monastic settlement founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century. Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port. It has been suggested by many historians that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network.

The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens in order to keep them from attacking the city. The Cork municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Of these families, only the Ronayne family were of Gaelic Irish origin. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people. It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed.

A description of Cork written in 1577 speaks of the city as, "the fourth city of Ireland" that is, "so encumbered with evil neighbours, the Irish outlaws, that they are fayne to watch their gates hourly … they trust not the country adjoining [and only marry within the town] so that the whole city is linked to each other in affinity"

The city’s charter was granted by King John in 1185. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the Knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the City.

In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was gutted by fires started by the British Black and Tans, and the city saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.

The Streets Of Cork