#healing Fruit Fly Immunity Fail: Fungus After Flight (NASA, International Space Station, 07/01/14)

A few yeast infection images I found:

Fruit Fly Immunity Fail: Fungus After Flight (NASA, International Space Station, 07/01/14)
yeast infection

Image by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center
In this image: A fruit fly infected with fungus. Fruit flies that developed in space showed weakened immunity to fungal infections post-spaceflight.

From the article Before you swat away the next fruit fly, consider instead just how similar its biological complexities are to our own. In a study published in PLOS ONE, researchers led by Deborah Kimbrell, Ph.D., at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and their collaborators, studied how microorganisms may alter fruit flies’ immunity in space and in hypergravity, or increased gravity. The article is titled “Toll Mediated Infection Response Is Altered by Gravity and Spaceflight in Drosophila.”

This study suggests that having normal gravity or hypergravity on the space station may help mitigate some of the biological problems, including weakened immune response, in organisms living in space. Since fruit flies have similar immune response mechanisms to humans, this knowledge may help NASA create specialized countermeasures to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space missions to an asteroid or Mars.

Knowledge that spaceflight weakens the human immune system obtained from years of research in microgravity has led scientists to use model organisms similar to humans to test out various scenarios of disease or weakened immunity in spaceflight. Model organisms, such as plants, fruit flies or microbes like yeast, advance our understanding of the influence of microgravity on cells. Taking these organisms to space allows for examination of growth and development and physiological, psychological and aging processes without the impact of gravity.

Drosophila melanogaster – the common fruit fly – was used in this study, due to its similar human immune function qualities, sharing characteristics of cellular and humoral, or extracellular fluids, immunity and signaling pathways. The fruit fly makes such a great model, in fact, that NASA developed a new Fruit Fly Lab in 2014 to accommodate continued study of Drosophila. This facility will support longer duration studies involving multiple generations of fruit flies.

Researchers discovered that hypergravity and microgravity produced opposite cell-based responses in fruit fly immunity. When exposed to increased gravity, the flies responded to infection by a fungus, Beauveria bassiana, using the Toll pathway. This was in direct contrast to the flies flown in space, since the space flies’ Toll pathway failed to respond to the exact same type of fungal infection. However, the Imd pathway response to E. coli bacteria was robust in flies exposed to hypergravity and microgravity.

Read full article:
www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/plos_one/

Image credit: Deborah Kimbrell

More about space station research:
www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/index.html

Flickr Album: Space Station Research Affects Lives:
www.flickr.com/photos/nasamarshall/sets/72157634178107799/

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Image from page 639 of “A text-book of mycology and plant pathology” (1917)
yeast infection

Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: textbookofmycol00hars
Title: A text-book of mycology and plant pathology
Year: 1917 (1910s)
Authors: Harshberger, John W. (John William), 1869-1929
Subjects: Plant diseases Fungi
Publisher: Philadelphia : P. Blakiston’s Son & Co.
Contributing Library: University of British Columbia Library
Digitizing Sponsor: University of British Columbia Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:
ast species A, and bi cells of a species Bin a flask containing p c.c. of culture liquid, from two seeding liquids containing aand b cells per unit of volume respectively. The number of cubic centimeters xand y, to be sown from A and B respectively, is found from the following equations. a p + x + y b p + x + y — = and y- = ai x b\ y the quantity of liquid after infection being P -\- x -\- y, from this we find: aibp , abip X = —r r r- and y = -r— r r ao — aib — aibi ao — aib — aiOi Combinations of the above three cases may of course occur but from the explana-tions given here it will not be difficult to solve them. 622 LABORATORY EXERCISES LESSON 21 Cultivation of Yeasts on Gypsum Blocks.—Spore Cultivation.—Blocks of gypsumare used generally for the cultivation of the spores of the yeasts. The block is inthe form of a truncated cone, and the cover of the vessel fits quite loosely. Thedishes used in the Carlsberg laboratory are the so-called bird troughs (Vogelnapfe).

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 219.—Method of pouring gelatin into Petri dishes. {After Lohnis.) A suitable size for these, taking outside measurements, is as follows: height 4.5 to5 cm.; diameter of the bottom about 7 cm. The gypsum block is 3 cm. high; thediameter of the lower surface is 5.3 cm., that of the upper surface 3.8 cm. To makea gypsum block, 2 parts of powdered gypsum are mixed with ^^ part of water and themixture poured into a tin mould. The block should be hard, and the mould mustnot be rubbed with fat, oil or such material. A culture on a gypsum block in such

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Fungal elements
yeast infection

Image by Iqbal Osman1
Fungal elements on urine microscopy